Books on Language Testing

Alderson, J. C. Clapham, C. and Wall, D. 1995. Language Testing Construction and Evaluation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bachman, L. 1990. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bachman, L. and Palmer, A. 1996. Language Testing in Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Brown, J. D. 1996. Testing in Language Programs. Prentice Hall International.

Carr, N. T. 2011. Designing and Analyzing Language Tests. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Clapham, C. and Corson, D. (Eds.) 1998. Envclopedia of Language and Education, First Edition, Volume 7: Language Testing and Assessment. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Coombe, C., P. Davidson, B. O'Sullivan & S. Stoynoff (Eds.) 2012. The Cambridge Guide to Second Language Assessment. Dordrecht: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davies, A. 1990. Principles of Language Testing. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Douglas, D. 2009. Understanding Language Testing. London: Hodder Education.

Fulcher, G. 2010. Practical Langauge Testing. London: Hodder Education.

Fulcher, G. 2015. Re-examining Language Testing. A philosophical and social inquiry. London and New York: Routledge.

Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. 2007. Language Testing: An advanced resource book. London and New York: Routeldge.

Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. 2012. (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Language Testing. London and New York: Routeldge.

Green, A. 2014. Exploring Language Testing and Assessment. London and New York: Routeldge.

Harrison, A. 1983. A Language Testing Handbook. London: Macmillan Press.

Heaton, J. B. 1975. Writing English Language Tests. London: Longman.

Henning, G. 1987. A Guide to Language Testing: Development, Evaluation, Research. Cambridge, Mass.: Newbury House.

Hughes, A. 1989/2003. Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kunnan, A. J. (Ed.) 2014. The Companion to Language Assessment. London: Wiley Blackwell.

Lado, R. 1961. Language Testing. London: Longman.

McNamara, T. 2000. Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shohamy, E. and Hornberger, N. (Eds.) 2008. Envclopedia of Language and Education, Second Edition, Volume 7: Language Testing and Assessment. New York: Springer.

Valette, R. 1977. Modern Language Testing. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Weir, C. 1993. Understanding and Developing Language Tests. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall.

Bookstore

Visit the Language Testing Bookstore for these and other books on language testing.

Validity

Chapelle, C. A. 1999. "Validity in Language Assessment" Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 19, 254 - 272.

Chapelle, C. A., Enright, M. K., and Jamieson, J. 2008. (Eds.) Building a Validity Argument for the Test of English as a Foreign Language. New York: Routeldge.

Fulcher, G. 1999. "Assessment in English for Academic Purposes: Putting Content Validity in its Place." Applied Linguistics 20, 2, 221 - 236.

Fulcher, G. 2014. Philosophy and Language Testing. In Kunnan, A. J. (Ed.) The Companion to Language Testing (pp. 1431 - 1451). London: Wiley-Blackwell.

Kane, M. T. 1992. "An argument-based approach to validity." Psychological Bulletin 112, 3, 527 - 535.

Kane, M. T. 2001. "Current concerns in validity theory." Journal of Educational Measurement 38, 4, 319 - 342.

Kane, M. T. 2006. "Validation." In Brennan, R. (Ed.) Educational Measurement. Fourth Edition. Wesport, CT: American Council on Education and Praeger, 17 - 64.

Messick, S. 1989. "Validity." In Linn, R. L. (ed.) Educational Measurement. New York: Macmillan, 13 - 103.

Messick, S. 1994. "The Interplay of Evidence and Consequences in the Validation of Performance Assessments." Educational Researcher 23, 2, 13 - 23.

Moss, P. 1994. "Can There Be Validity Without Reliability?" Educational Researcher 23, 2, 5 - 12."

Spolsky, B. 1985. "The limits of authenticity in language testing." Language Testing 2, 1, 31 - 40.

Spolsky, B. 1995. Measured Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stevenson, D. K. 1985. "Authenticity, validity and a tea party." Language Testing 2, 1, 41 - 47.

Xi, X. (2008). "Methods of Test Validation." In Shohamy, E., and Hornberger, N. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 7: Language TEsting and Assessment. New York: Springer, 177 - 196.

Reliability

Baker, R. 1997. Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in Test Analysis. Special Report No. 2, Language Testing Update. Lancaster: Lancaster University, United Kingdom.

Crocker, L. and Algina, J. 1986. Introduction to Classical and Modern Test Theory. Florida: Holt Rinehart Winston.

Lado, R. 1961. Language Testing. London: Longman.

Test Specifications

Davidson, F. and Lynch, B. K. 2002. Testcraft: A teacher's guide to writing and using language test specifications. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Davidson, F. and Fulcher, G. 2007. "The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and the design of language tests: A Matter of Effect." Language Teaching 40, 3, 231 - 241.

Fulcher, G. and Davidson, F. 2009. Test architecture, test retrofit. Language Testing 26, 1, 123 - 144.

Item Writing

Burton, S. J., Sudweeks, R. R., Merrill, P. F. and Wood, B. 1991. How to Prepare Better Multiple-Choice Test Items: Guidelines for University Faculty. Brigham Young University Testing Services and Department of Instructional Science.

Madsen, H. 1983. Techniques in Testing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stansfield, C. 1996. SOPI Test Development Manual. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Pretesting

Brown, J. D. and Yamashita, S. O. 1995. Language Testing in Japan. Tokyo: JALT.

All general books on language testing cover pre-testing. See especially those of J. D. Brown.

Testing Reading

Alderson, J. C. 1996. "The Testing of Reading." In Nuttall, C. (ed.) Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language. London: Heinemann.

Alderson, J. C. 2000. Assessing Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clapham. C. M. 1996. The Development of IELTS: A Study of the Effect of Background Knowledge on Reading Comprehension. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Perkins, K. 1998. "Assessing Reading." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 18, 208 - 218.

Pumfrey, P. D. 1977. Measuring Reading Abilities: Concepts, sources and applications. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Weir, C. J. 1998. "The Testing of Reading in a Second Language." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 39 - 49.

Testing Writing

Cumming, A. 1990. "Expertise in Evaluating Second Language Compositions." Language Testing 7, 1, 31 - 51.

Cumming, A. 1998. "The Testing of Writing in a Second Language." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 51 - 63.

Cushing Weigle, S. 2002. Assessing Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fulcher, G. 1997. "Assssing Writing." In Fulcher, G. (ed.) Writing in the English Language Classroom. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall Europe.

Hamp-Lyons, L. 1991. Assessing Second Language Writing in Academic Contexts. Ablex, Norwood NJ.

Kroll, B. 1998. "Assessing Writing Abilities." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 18, 219 - 240.

White, E. M., Lutz, W. D. and Kamusikiri, S. (eds.) Assessment of Writing: Politics, Policies, Practices. New York: Modern Language Association.

Testing Listening

Brindley, G. 1998. "Assessing Listening Abilities." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 18, 171 - 191.

Buck, G. 1992. "Listening Comprehension: Construct Validity and Trait Characteristics." Language Learning 42, 3, 313 - 357.

Buck, G. 1998. "Testing of Listening in a Second Language." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 65 - 74.

Buck, G. 2001. Assessing Listening. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Testing Speaking

Fulcher, G. 1998. "The Testing of Speaking in a Second Language." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 75 - 85.

Fulcher, G. 2003. Testing Second Language Speaking. London: Longman/Pearson Education.

Fulcher, G. 2008. "Assessing Language Quality". In Shohamy, E. (Ed.) Language Testing and Assessment. Vol. 7, Encyclopedia of Language and Education. New York: Springer Publishers, 157 - 176.

Lazaraton, A. 2002. A Qualitative Approach to the Validation of Oral Language Tests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press and the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Studies in Language Testing Series 14.

Luoma, S. 2004. Assessing Speaking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nakatsuhara, F. 2013. The Co-construction of Conversation in Group Oral Tests. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Turner, J. 1998. "Assessing Speaking." Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 18, 192 - 207.

Vocabulary

Read, J. 2000. Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Daller, H., Milton, J. and Treffers-Daller, J. (Eds.) 2007. Modelling and Assessing Vocabulary Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Schmitt, N. 2010. Researching Vocabulary: A Vocabulary Research Manual. London: Palgrave Mamillan.

Integrated Assessment

Asencion-Delaney, Y. (2008). Investigating the reading-to-write construct. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 7(3), 140-150.

Carson, J. (2001). A task analysis of reading and writing in academic contexts. In D. Belcher & A. Hirvela (Eds.) Linking literacies: Perspectives on L2 reading-writing connections (pp. 48-83). Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.

Cumming, A., Kantor, R., Baba, K., Erdosy, U., Eouanzoui, K., & James, M. (2005). Differences in written discourse in independent and integrated prototype tasks for next generation TOEFL. Assessing Writing, 10, 5-43.

Feak, C. & Dobson, B. (1996). Building on the impromptu: A source-based writing assessment. College ESL, 6(1), 73-84.

Grabe,W. (2003). Reading and writing relations: second language perspectives on research and practice. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Exploring the dynamics of second language writing (pp. 242-262). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lewkowicz, J. (1994). Writing from sources: Does source material help or hinder students' performance? In N. Bird, P. Falvey, A. Tsui, D. Allison & A. McNeill (Eds.), Language and learning (pp. 204-217). Hong Kong: Government Printer.

Lewkowicz, J. (1997). The integrated testing of a second language. In C. Calpham (Ed.), Encyclopedia of language and education, Vol. 7: Language testing and assessment (pp. 121-130). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Plakans, L. (2008). Comparing composing processes in writing-only and reading-to-write test tasks. Assessing Writing, 13, 111-129.

Plakans, L. (2009). The role of reading strategies in integrated L2 writing tasks. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, doi 10.1016/j.jeap.2009.05.001

Plakans, L. (forthcoming) Discourse synthesis in integrated second language writing assessment. Language Testing

Watanabe, Y. (2001). Read-to-write tasks for the assessment of second language academic writing skills: Investigating text features and rater reaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii, Manoa.

Trites, L., & McGroarty, M. (2005). Reading to learn and reading to integrate: new tasks for reading comprehension tests? Language Testing, 22, 174-210.

Weigle, S. (2004). Integrating reading and writing in a competency test for non-native speakers of English. Assessing Writing, 9, 27-55.

Yu, G. (2008). Reading to summarize in English and Chinese: A tale of two languages? Language Testing 25, 521-551.

Yu. G. (2009). The shifting sands in the effects of source texts summarizability on summary writing. Assessing Writing, 14(2), 116-137.

Testing for Specific Purposes

Clapham, C. 1996. The development of IELTS: A study of the effect of background knowledge on reading comprehension. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Douglas, D. 1998. "Language for Specific Purposes Testing." In Clapham, C. and Corson, D. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7: Language Testing and Assessment, 111 - 119.

Douglas, D. 1998. "Testing methods in context-based SL research." In Bachman, L. F. & Cohen, A. D. (Eds.) Interfaces Between Second laguage Acquisition and Language Testing Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 141 - 155.

Douglas, D. 2000. Assessing Languages for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Douglas, D. & R.K. Myers. In Press. "Assessing the communication skills of veterinary students: Whose criteria?" In A. Kunnan (Ed.), Fairness in Language Testing. Selected Papers from the 1997 Language Testing Research Colloquium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jacoby, S. and McNamara, T. 1999. "Locating competence." English for Specific Purposes 18.3: 213-241.

McNamara, T. 1996. Measuring Second Language Performance. London: Longman.

Selinker, L. 1979. "On the use of informants in discourse analysis and language for specific purposes." International Review of Applied Linguistics, 17: 189-215.

Skehan, P. 1984. Issues In the testing of English for specific purposes. Language Testing 1: 202-220.

Widdowson, H. 1983. Learning purpose and language use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Test Taking Strategies

Allan, A. (1992). Development and validation of a scale to measure test-wiseness in EFL/ESL reading test-takers. Language Testing, 9(2), 101-122.

Anderson, N. J. (1991). Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. The Modern Language Journal, 75(4), 460-472.

Anderson, N., Bachman, L., Perkins, K., & Cohen, A. (1991). An exploratory study into the construct validity of a reading comprehension test: Triangulation of data sources. Language Testing, 8(1), 41-66.

Cohen, A. D. (1984). On taking language tests: What the students report. Language Testing, 1(1), 70-81.

Cohen, A. D. (2000). Exploring strategies in test-taking: Fine-tuning verbal reports from respondents. In Ekbatani, G. & Pierson, H. (Eds.), Learner-directed assessment in ESL (pp. 127-150), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Cohen, A. D. (2006). The coming of age of research on test-taking strategies. Language Assessment Quarterly, 3(4), 307-331.

Cohen, A. D., & Upton, T. A. (2006). Strategies in responding to the new TOEFL reading tasks [Monograph No. 33]. Princeton, NJ: ETS. http://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RR-06-06.pdf

Cohen, A. D. & Upton, T. A. (2007). "I want to go back to the text": Response strategies on the reading subtest of the New TOEFL. Language Testing, 24(2), 209-250.

Nevo, N. (1989). Test-taking strategies on a multiple-choice test of reading comprehension. Language Testing, 6(2), 199-215.

Phakiti, A. (2003). A closer look at the relationship of cognitive and metacognitive strategy use to EFL reading achievement test performance. Language Testing, 20(1), 26-56.

Purpura, J. E. (1999). Learner strategy use and performance on language tests: A structural equation modeling approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rogers, W. T., & Bateson, D. J. (1991). The influence of test-wiseness on the performance of high school seniors on school leaving examinations. Applied Measurement in Education, 4, 159-183.

Stemmer, B. (1991). What's on a C-test taker's mind? Mental processes in C-test taking. Bochum: Universitatsverlag Dr. N. Brockmeyer.

Storey, P. (1997). Examining the test-taking process: A cognitive perspective on the discourse cloze test. Language Testing, 14(2), 214-231.

Impact

Alderson, J. C. and Wall, D. 1993. "Does Washback Exist?" Applied Linguistics 14, 2, 115 - 129.

Cheng, L. (2008). "Washback, Impact and Consequences." In Shohamy, E., and Hornberger, N. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 7: Language TEsting and Assessment. New York: Springer, 349 - 364.

Cheng, L., Watanabe, Y. with Curtis, A. 2004. Washback in Language Testing: Research Contexts and Methods. Mahwah, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum.

Davidson, F., Turner, C. E. and Huhta, A. 1998. "Language Testing Standards." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 303 - 311.

Davies, A. 1997. "Demands of being professional in language testing." Language Testing 14, 3, 328 - 339.

Fulcher, G. and Bamford, R. 1997. "I didn't get the grade I need. Where's my solicitor?" System 24, 4, 437 - 448.

Green, A. 2007. IELTS Washback in Context: Preparation for academic writing in higher education. Cambridge: Cambridge Universeity Press.

Hamp-Lyons, L. 1997. "Washback, Impact and Validity: Ethical Concerns." Language Testing 14, 3, 295 - 303.

Hamp-Lyons, L. 1998. "Ethics in Language Testing." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 323 - 333.

Lynch, B. 1997. "In search of the ethical test." Language Testing 14, 3, 315 - 327.

McNamara, T. (2008). "The Sociopolitical and Power Dimensions of Tests." In Shohamy, E., and Hornberger, N. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition, Volume 7: Language TEsting and Assessment. New York: Springer, 415 - 428.

McNamara, T. and Roever, C. (2006). Language Testing: The Social Dimension. London: Blackwell.

Messick, S. 1996. "Validity and Washback in Language Testing." Language Testing 13, 3, 241 - 256.

Norton, B. 1998. "Accountability in Language Assessment." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 313 - 212.

Shohamy, E. 1993. "The Exercise of Power and Contol in the Rhetorics of Testing." In Huhta, A., Sajavaara, K. and Takala, S. (eds.) Language Testing: New Openings. University of Jyvaskyla: Institute for Educational Research.

Shohamy, E. 1997. "Testing Methods, Testing Consequences: Are they Ethical? Are they Fair?" Language Testing 14, 3, 340 - 349.

Shohamy, E. 2001. The Power of Tests. A Critical Perspective on the Uses of Language Tests. London: Longman/Pearson Education.

Shohamy, E. 2001. Democratic assessment as an alternative. Language Testing 18, 4, 373 - 392.

Spolsky, B. 1997. "The ethics of gatekeeping tests: what have we learned in a hundred years?" Language Testing 14, 3, 242 - 247.

Wall, D. 1998. "Impact and Washback in Language Testing." In Clapham, C. M. and Corson, D. (eds.) Language Testing and Assessment. Encyclopedia of Language and Education, Vol. 7, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 291 - 302.

Item Response Theory

Baker, Frank 2001. The Basics of Item Response Theory. Washington: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.

Baker, R. 1997. Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory in Test Analysis. Lancaster University: Language Testing Update Special Report No 2.

Hambleton R. K. , and Cook L.L. 1977. Latent trait models and their use in the analysis of educational test data. Journal of Educational Measurement 14(2):75-96.

Wright, Benjamin D. & Mark H. Stone (1979) Best Test Design. Chicago: Mesa Press.

Statistics

Bachman, L. F. 2004. Statistical Analyses for Language Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Davidson, F. 1996. Principles of Statistical Data Handling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, Inc.

Davidson, F. 2000. The languge testers' statistical toolbox. System, 28, 4, 605 - 617.

Green, R. 2013. Statistical Analyses for Language Testers. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kerlinger, F. 1986. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt-Rinehart and Winston.

Structural Equation Modeling

In'nami, Y. & Koizumi, R. 2011. Structural Equation Modeling in Language Testing and Learning Research: A Review. Language Assessment Quarterly 8, 3, 250 -276.

Kunnan, A. J. 1998. An introduction to SEM for language assessment research. Language Testing, 15, 3, 295 - 332.

Raykov, T. & Marcoulides, G. (2006; 2nd ed.). A first course in SEM. Mahwah, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schumacker, R. & Lomax, R. (1996). A beginners guide to SEM. Mahwah, NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Technology

Chapelle, C. A. 2001. Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Chapelle, C. A. and Douglas, D. 2006. Assessing Language through Computer Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Automated Scoring

Bernstein, J., Van Moere, A., and Cheng, J. (2010). Validating Automated Speaking Tests. Language Testing 27, 3.

Chapelle, C. A., Chung, Y-R, Hegelheimer, V., Pendar, N. and Xu, J. (2010). Towards a computer-delivered test of productive grammatical ability. Language Testing 27, 3.

Dikli, S. (2006). An Overview of Automated Scoring of Essays. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment 5, 1.

Enright, M. K. and Quinlan, T. (2010). Complementing Human Judgment of Essays Written by English Language Learners with E-Rater Scoring. Language Testing 27, 3.

Ginther, A., Slobodanka, D., and Yang, R. (2010). Conceptual and Empirical Relationships between Temporal Measures of Fluency and Oral English Proficiency with Implications for Automated Scoring. Language Testing 27, 3.

Weigle, S. (2010). Validation of Automated Scores of TOEFL Non-Test Indicators of Writing Ability. Language Testing 27, 3.

Xi, X. (2010). Automated Scoring and Feedback Systems: Where Are We and Where Are We Heading? Language Testing 27, 3.


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